Surgical treatments for cervical cancer are used to remove the tumor and the area close to the tumor, called a margin. For very early cervical cancer, classified as Stage 0, conization is used to remove the cancerous tissue. Most women with early cervical cancer have a total hysterectomy, which is surgery to remove both the cervix and the uterus. In some cases, a radical hysterectomy is necessary. A radical hysterectomy removes the uterus, cervix, and part of the vagina.
With either total or radical hysterectomy, the surgeon may also remove the fallopian tubes and ovaries. This procedure is a salpingo-oophorectomy.
The surgeon may also remove the lymph nodes near the tumor to see if they contain cancer. If cancer cells have reached the lymph nodes, it means the disease may have spread to other parts of the body and further treatment may be necessary.