Ovarian torsion, sometimes called adnexal torsion, occurs when an ovary becomes twisted. Common causes and risk factors for ovarian torsion include:
- Prior pelvic surgery, especially tubal ligation
- An enlarged ovary
- Ovarian cyst
- Benign ovarian tumor
Most women with ovarian torsion experience a sudden, sharp pain in the lower abdomen that worsens in a matter of hours. In rare cases, the pain is mild at first and takes a longer time to worsen. Nausea and vomiting are common.
Treatment for ovarian torsion is surgery. The goal of surgery may be detorsion, or untwisting, of the ovary, but this is rarely possible. Most often, the ovary must be removed.